By Peter Thompson B.Theo Grad Dip Theology
In Parts 1-2, we looked at how Yahweh shepherded Israel, especially by leading them using His voice. Now, we will consider how Jesus, as the messianic Shepherd raised up by Yahweh, shepherds the church today in the same way.
The Messianic Shepherd
- Himself as Israel’s Shepherd gather the remnant of His lost flock from the exile, from all the places they had been scattered to, bringing them back into their fold where their wounds will be bandaged, the weak strengthened, the lost found, and where they can be fed with good pasture and be fruitful and multiply (Jeremiah 23:3; 31:10-11; 50:17-20; Ezekiel 34:11-16; compare Micah 7:14-17; Zechariah 9:16-17);
- set up post-exilic under-shepherds over His flock (like Zerubbabel and Nehemiah), but will eventually raise up one particular under-shepherd, the Davidic Messiah, the true Shepherd who will feed Yahweh’s flock and reign over them as a wise king to deliver them so that they will be totally secure, walking according to Yahweh’s rules, obeying His statutes (Jeremiah 3:14-18; 23:4-6; Ezekiel 34:23-24; 37:24-28; compare Psalm 2:9 noting “rule” there is literally “shepherd”); and
- put His words in the mouth of the messianic prophet like Moses (Deuteronomy 18:15-19).
Note Proverbs 10:21 which states literally that the lips of the righteous shepherd/feed many.
Jesus the Messianic Shepherd
Jesus is the Great Shepherd of God’s flock (Hebrews 13:20; 1 Peter 2:25; 5:4), the Messianic/Davidic Shepherd predicted in the Old Testament, because He:
- was born in Bethlehem just like the shepherd-king David (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-11; 1 Samuel 16:1-5; compare Luke 2:1-7, 10-11; John 7:42);
- will come forth for Yahweh at the appointed time, when she who is in labour gives birth, as the ruler in Israel, one whose origin was from ancient days (Micah 5:2-3; compare Luke 1:30-33, 35; 2:8-12);
- was anointed by the Spirit (Isaiah 11:1-2, 42:1; 61:1; Mark 1:9-11; Matthew 3:13-17; Luke 3:21-22; 4:16-21; Acts 10:38);
- was struck by both the elders/scribes/priests and the Roman soldiers, after which His disciples were scattered, denying knowledge of Him (Zechariah 13:7; Matthew 26:31, 67; 27:30; Mark 14:27; 65; 15:19; Luke 22:63-64; John 16:32; 18:22; 19:1-3; compare Matthew 26:69-75; Luke 22:54-62; John 18:15-18, 25-27; Mark 14:66-72);
- shall shepherd His flock in the strength of Yahweh (Micah 5:4; compare Luke 4:14; John 10:37-38); and
- shall be the peace of His flock, defeating all their enemies (Micah 5:5-6; compare Revelation 7:14-17).
Jesus the Good Shepherd
In contrast to hired hands who flee when danger approaches the sheep, Jesus is the good Shepherd who lays down His life for the sheep (John 10:11-13). As such, Jesus:
- knows His sheep, Jew and Gentile alike, as God’s one flock who listen to His voice (John 10:14-16, 27; compare Ephesians 2:11-16);
- provides access to the safety of the fold for the sheep who follow and heed His voice (John 10:1-6); and
- is the actual door of the sheep by whom entry is provided to find safety and pasture (John 10:7-10).
Jesus the Responsible Shepherd
As the good Shepherd, Jesus, like Yahweh:
- seeks the lost sheep (Luke 15:1-7; Matthew 15:24; 18:10-14);
- heals the lost sheep of Israel (1 Peter 2:24-25; Matthew 9:35-36; compare Acts 10:38);
- teaches/instructs the lost sheep (Mark 6:34); and
- sends His disciples out to also find and heal Israel’s lost sheep (Matthew 10:5-8; Luke 9:1-6; 10:1-9, 17).
The Risen Lord Who Speaks
If the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God at the resurrection (John 5:25, 28-29), how much more will the living now hear Him as the risen Lord. For instance, after His resurrection, Jesus appeared and/or spoke to:
- Mary Magdaline (John 20:11-18; Mark 16:9-11; compare Luke 24:1-12; Matthew 28:1-7; Mark 16:1-8);
- Cleopas and another disciple on the road to Emmaus (Luke 24:13-32; Mark 16:12-13);
- all the disciples at least three times when they were gathered together in Jerusalem (Luke 24:33, 36-51; John 20:19-29; Acts 1:2-9; Mark 16:14-19; 1 Corinthians 15:5-7);
- the eleven disciples on a mountain in Galilee (Matthew 28:5-10; 16-20; Mark 16:6-7);
- seven of the disciples, including Peter, James, John, Thomas and Nathanael, by the Sea of Tiberias (John 21:1-24);
- Peter (1 Corinthians 15:5);
- James (1 Corinthians 15:7);
- Paul directly on the road to Damascus (Acts 9:3-8, 27; 22:6-14; 26:12-15; 1 Corinthians 15:8-9);
- Ananias in a vision concerning Paul in Damascus (Acts 9:10-15);
- Peter in a vision on the rooftop at Joppa (Acts 10:9-16; 11:7-10);
- Paul in a vision in Corinth (Acts 18:9-10);
- Paul in a trance in the temple at Jerusalem (Acts 22:17-21);
- Paul in Jerusalem (Acts 23:11);
- Paul in a vision when he was caught up into the third heaven (2 Corinthians 12:1-4, 7-9); and
- John when he was in the Spirit on the Isle of Patmos (Revelation 1:9-20).
Christ the risen Lord also spoke through Paul (2 Corinthians 13:2-4), especially considering that Paul’s gospel was given by special revelation (Galatians 1:11-12; 2:1-9). Jesus even spoke through the Scriptures (Hebrews 2:10-13; 10:5-9), but it is important to emphasise that He also speaks directly to certain individuals, and can speak supernaturally to whole assemblies of believers through the charismatic gifts of speech.
The Holy Spirit Who Speaks Directly
The Holy Spirit, in speaking on behalf of the risen Jesus (John 16:13-15):
- spoke directly to a group of teachers and prophets at Antioch (Acts 13:1-4);
- spoke directly to Philip (Acts 8:29);
- spoke directly to Peter (Acts 10:19; 11:12; compare Acts 10:28);
- guided Paul, Silas and Timothy directly by forbidding them to speak in Asia or to travel to Bithynia (Acts 16:6-7), and indirectly through a vision to travel to Macedonia (Acts 16:8-10); and
- spoke through the eleven disciples/apostles initially, and then at times through church leaders of all ages, whenever they were dragged before the rulers of the land (Matthew 10:17-20; Mark 13:10-11; Luke 12:11-12; compare Acts 4:8-21, 29-31; 6:8-10).
The Holy Spirit Who Speaks Through Prophecy
The Holy Spirit also speaks through prophecy to:
- the Christian assembly communally (1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Corinthians 12:10; 14:3-5, 29-33; Acts 11:27-28; 15:30-32; Ephesians 4:11-12; Romans 12:4-6; Revelation 1:3; 22:6-10; compare Acts 2:16-18 1 Corinthians 12:3); and
- individuals (Acts 20:22-23; 21:4, 10-11; 1 Timothy 1:18; 4:14; compare 1 Corinthians 14:24-25).
Nonetheless, we must not diminish how the Spirit also speaks through the Scriptures (Hebrews 3:7; 10:15-17; Acts 28:25). Note that the Spirit of prophecy is the testimony of Jesus (Revelation 19:10), so prophecy never contradicts the Scriptural account of the Gospel centred around Jesus.
Jesus the Second Moses
Notice Numbers 12:1-15, with Moses as a type of Christ (Acts 3:20-24; 7:37; Deuteronomy 18:15-19; 34:10-12). Jesus is the only One who has truly spoken directly to the Father face-to-face (note especially John 5:36-40; compare John 1:1-2, 14, 18; 8:38), and He is the One through whom the Father now speaks to us, and Him alone (Hebrews 1:2; compare Ephesians 2:18; 1 Timothy 2:5).
Any other avenue for the Father speaking is leprous, contaminated, unclean/impure, and in context egocentric and insubordinate (note Deuteronomy 24:8-9; compare Leviticus 13:45-46; 14:1-32; and especially 2 Kings 5:1-27 noting verse 25 where Gehazi no longer stood before Elisha in submission but beside him, after robbing Yahweh of the sole honour of healing Naaman in order to procure goods/luxuries for himself and the school of prophets — on the basis of his own standard of what is good and proper — rather than trusting in Yahweh’s provision).
This means then that the Father speaks through Christ like He did through His under-shepherd Moses (John 3:31-34; 8:26-28, 40; 12:49-50; 14:10, 24). Hence, Jesus shepherds the church now in the strength of how the Father had shepherded Israel through Moses.
Responsibilities of the Sheep
Consequently, the church, as sheep belonging to Jesus’ sheepfold, are to:
- believe in their shepherd as the Christ (John 10:24-26);
- listen only to the voice of their Shepherd, not to strangers, in order to be secure in the safety of the fold (John 10:3-5, 16, 27-28);
- respond to their Shepherd’s voice when He speaks (Revelation 3:20);
- beware the wolves in sheep’s clothing (Matthew 7:15);
- give food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, clothing to the naked, and to visit the sick and those in prison (Matthew 25:21-40);
- seek the kingdom of God, selling their possessions and giving to the poor (Luke 12:29-32); and
- suffer with and for the Shepherd’s sake (Romans 8:17-18, 35-37).
Note that those who side with truth listen to Jesus’ voice (John 18:37). This is not surprising since Jesus is the embodiment of truth (see Churches as God’s Household-Temple Revealing Truth Part 1).
In Part 4, we will tie together the implications of Parts1-3 for how churches should be structured as God’s flock.
To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you will need to see the notes which are available for download here.
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Peter “Thommo” Thompson was born in 1958 in the bulldust of south-western Queensland in the region around the township of Mitchell. He was converted outside of the church through a supernatural encounter with the living God in Mackay, North Queensland, in February 1979, and embarked upon a long and arduous journey of God dealing with the figurative bulldust in his life. In 2012, he completed a Bachelor of Ministry & Theology double degree, and in 2013, a Post-Graduate Diploma in Theology, all at Tabor Adelaide. He currently lives with his two adult daughters in Ipswich, Queensland, and is writing a series of academic novels with the intent of hopefully helping to facilitate a church unifying movement through an unbranded form of Christianity in Australia.
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