12 Signs that your Church has a Culture of Trust

By Peter Sewell

0721_trustOne of the greatest challenges I face when helping business organisations, is the lack of trust between leaders, management, and staff. Sadly, a culture of distrust is also experienced in many churches. Often the issues that contribute to a culture of distrust have been persistent for many years. In a conversation which I recently had with a pastor in Berlin, I was told that if trust was a currency, then Germans would be bankrupt. It seems a hard statement, however all the Germans I have spoken with agree that distrust is a major problem. In Germany’s history we see many examples of division, not only among the religious community, but also politically. The most famous examples of division include Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis, and the construction of the Berlin wall. Rather than exploring the reasons why distrust is often prevalent, I would like to focus on the benefits of being in a culture where trust is active.

The following list includes twelve signs that clearly demonstrate whether a church has a culture of trust or not. In my experience, I have found that these twelve points are seen working together. They are seldom seen in isolation from each other.

1. Everyone feels valued and appreciated

Trust creates an environment where people value each other. People should feel valued no matter how small their contribution is. In a culture of trust, it doesn’t matter how long you’ve been a member, what role you play, what your abilities are, or how old you are, everyone is appreciated and valued. In a culture of trust, people regularly receive praise no matter what contribution they make.

2. Members are empowered to minister spiritual gifts

Trust opens a platform to impart a gift into a person’s life. Timothy was able to minister to the Corinthian church because Paul trusted him and highly recommended him. In an environment of trust, everyone is more open to receive from each other. In a culture of distrust, excuses are created to discourage members from ministering their spiritual gifts.

3. People are willing to take greater risks

If people have encouragement and feel trusted, they are more willing to take risks. Most of the missionaries I know, and anyone who has served God outside of their comfort zone, have one thing in common. They may have been apprehensive at stepping out into something new, but they had at least one person who trusted and supported them.

4. There is a high commitment to serve

When people know they are trusted, they are more willing to commit to serving. In an environment of distrust, everything you do is carefully monitored, decision making is limited, and creativity is suppressed. No one enjoys serving in an environment where every decision needs to be approved by five different people, and where someone is watching over your shoulder 24/7.

5. There is a high level of productivity

When there is a high level of trust, people naturally achieve much more. Trust is not the only issue that affects productivity, but I believe it is one of the biggest factors. If people trust each other to do their jobs, whether it involves a safety check, a phone call, or scheduling an appointment, it’s much easier for them to focus on their own task instead of worrying about others.

6. Everyone honours one another

The bible instructs us to honour one another. One of the keys to honour is trust. In a culture of distrust, people pull each other down in order to justify their own importance. In a culture of trust, leaders don’t need to seek honour, they are given honour because they have supported, cared for, and believed in the people they serve. Honour should always be based on a relationship of trust, and never obligation.

7. Bridges of friendship are created and groups work together

Division within the body of Christ is created from a lack of trust. When groups trust each other, they are happy to share resources and time to assist one another. When groups focus on common goals and have a desire to work together, it is possible to achieve much more than any of them could achieve alone. Everyone benefits from long term trusting relationships.

8. Members actively seek ways to learn from one another

It’s much easier to learn from someone that you trust. When people don’t trust each other, the levels of conversation are very shallow. When the level of trust grows, people share more freely allowing everyone to learn from each others’ personal experiences. In an environment of trust, churches seek ways to bring people together to build relationships and facilitate learning.

9. Members are transparent and accountable to each othertrust-father-son_4da5cf3571f9c356dbf96fc1a23417b4

Accountability is based on trust. When people trust each other, they can be transparent and share honestly with each other. In an environment of trust, people don’t hide their true feelings, they share them. In an environment of trust, people can share their mistakes and weaknesses, and in return they can receive the support and encourage they need to grow in their personal life.

10. Members can share their concerns and issues are addressed

An environment of trust allows everyone to share their concerns. Too often people are afraid to speak up and question the way something is done, or raise contentious issues. In Acts chapter 6, the Apostles responded to a report that Grecian widows were being neglected. In a culture of distrust, issues are swept under the carpet.

11. Members share their ideas freely

In an environment of trust, people are more willing to share their ideas. Even if the idea is not suitable, people know they are appreciated for their input. An environment of trust is always buzzing with excitement as people share ideas and work together. I wonder how many creative ideas have experienced a silent death because members knew that no one would seriously listen to them.

12. Members are equipped and promoted

One of the most distinctive signs of a culture of trust is the promotion of members. The Apostle Paul released Timothy into the role of an overseer, even though Timothy was still considered very young. A culture of trust supports and releases people to serve in order to facilitate multiplication. In a culture of distrust, leaders protect their roles, and withhold opportunities for others to grow.

Can you identify any of the signs in your church? What are some things your church does to enhance trust among members? Are there any other points you would add to this list? The framework has suggested methods to enhance trust which we are confident you will reap tremendous rewards. We cannot live in fear. But building a culture of honour is paramount.


To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you can download the Framework and Notes here, free of charge.

Please also share our blog to allow others to review and contribute – we need everyone, not just leaders, to play their part in building a church that others want to come to.


Peter Sewell has over 25 years of ministry experience, training church leadership teams, business and government leaders, and community groups. He is a passionate supporter of the local church and served as an associate pastor for 15 years. During this time he was involved in planting new churches, and coordinating cell groups, pastoral care, and discipleship. He has qualifications in biblical studies, business, counselling, coaching, and adult education, and is currently involved in training future leaders across Europe.


Copyright 2015 Peter Sewell http://www.churchexcellenceframework.com. Permission is granted to copy, forward, or distribute this article for non-commercial use only, as long as this copyright byline, in totality, is maintained in all duplications, copies, and link references.  For reprint permission for any commercial use, in any form of media, please contact us.

 

14 Wrong Reasons for Going to Church

Guest blogger Jose Bosque , founder of viral cast media

two-or-moreAs you can tell from the title, I am not trying to make friends here. I am however, serious as a heart attack about the importance of this subject. I understand what I am going to say goes against thousands of years of ingrained religious nonsense, business success concepts brought in to “help” the church, and human traditions meant to replace the absence of the GENUINE.

I am just a one voice, but I join millions worldwide who are waking up and coming out from under the religious bondage and propaganda of a centuries old, corrupt, religious system. All of this has been fueled by the desire to control others, a “we have always done it like this” mentality and/or, a general lack of faith in God’s ability to provide for His own.

First let me begin by saying I love the Church. She is formed of the most wonderful, loving, and caring people you would ever want to meet.  I truly love this One Church that the Lord Jesus Christ is building. There is no other. There is only one Body of the Lord Jesus Christ. All Christian are members of that Body by virtue of being born again from above.

I am just a one voice, but I join millions worldwide who are waking up and coming out from under the religious bondage and propaganda of a centuries old, corrupt, system. All of this has been fueled by the desire to control others, a “we have always done it like this” mentality and/or, a general lack of faith in God’s ability to provide for His own.

The Lord recognizes no other memberships to local or independent congregations. The Lord recognizes no baptism certificates or ordination papers or any other human external validation. There are many religious clubs and associations that are independent or are connected to denominations who consider themselves also to be part of the Church. Scripture is very clear on that.

2 Tim 2:19 says: Nevertheless, the solid foundation of God stands, having this seal: “The Lord knows those who are His. NKJV

We don’t write to judge others. The Lord Himself will judge on that day. We are here to bring truth to God’s people and that TRUTH is a person, The Lord Jesus Christ, not a neat little package of favorite Bible verses that support your style of worship or your favorite theology.

The Lord recognizes no Catholics, Baptist, Assemblies of God, or any other call sign you wish to use. Those are all man made divisions of the Body of the Lord Jesus Christ.

When Constantine messed with the church in 300 AD and began building sanctuaries and creating a salaried clergy class (Pastors & Priests) the church probably, in my book, suffered its greatest blow. Man simply should not try to “help” God. We would think that the Roman persecution hurt the church more but instead it caused the church to grow. It was said in those days that the “blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church.”

When the church became a building, man separated secular time with spiritual time. When you are in the building its time to be spiritual, but when you are away that is your time. To a truly born again person such thinking is heresy.

Scripture says we were bought with a price. Calvary wasn’t meant to provide humanity with a get-out –of-hell card, or to pay our dues so we can attend the weekly hour and twenty minute show.  People are not laundry “in by 11 dirty out by 1230 clean” and God is not limited to talking only in our “sanctuaries.” Real Christians know we can’t go to Church–we are the Church. The Church of the Lord Jesus Christ is made up people not brick and mortar or any other building material.

I believe that when the requirement of going somewhere weekly was tied to our ability to hear from God, we had to create pseudo reasons to perpetuate the nonsense.

choir-303302_640The following “14 Wrong Reasons for Going to Church” are in progression of how they were taught to me.

1. To celebrate the Lords Day – I was taught that the church exchanged the Jewish Sabbath with celebrating Sunday the first day of the week to celebrate the resurrection. Talk about piecing together scripture to come up with that one.

2. To show respect for the Lord by dressing up with our Sunday best. Since when does Christianity care about the externals? Oh, how we have kept thousands out because they were too ashamed of their dress.

3. To go hear the preacher give us the “Word.” Nowhere in the New Testament does the Church have a mediator between God and man like the present pastor/priest system. The word of the Lord was never an exposition of scripture by professional seminary-trained clergy. At best two or three need to speak and every believer is to be mature enough to test the Spirit of what is being said.

4. To give (Pay) our tithes and offerings. More than 80% of a church’s income goes to support two totally unbiblical things: the modern church building and the salaried clergy class. To justify them, we use very selective Old Testament proof texts. However, neither of these concepts are justifiable. These practices simply cannot be found in the New Testament.

5. To bring the “lost” to His house to receive Christ and get “saved.” Until around 1870, no one ever walked up front to receive Christ during an “invitation.” This is another modern invention– that teaches that the front of our church building is the “Holy Place” or altar because it’s higher or decorated differently. New Testament church gatherings were for believers and the lost got saved wherever they were when they had an encounter with Christ. I languished in a denomination that preached salvation sermons every Sunday at “saved” people. Talk about perpetuating immaturity!

6. To worship Him. This is going to come as a shock to many, but real Christians worship the Lord daily with their life. The idea of going once a week to a building to worship God is alien to real Christianity. Worship is not singing prior to the preaching. Worship starts when your feet hit the ground each morning.

7. To use our gifts and our talents.  Again, this is another invention of the once a week Christianity. Real Christians operate in their gifts and callings 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. What part of “DAILY” do we not understand? All of you dying to get the microphone on Sunday morning when was the last time you got a word from the Lord in Wal-Mart?

8. To do ministry (healing & deliverance).  When we invented professional clergy, we had to come up with a word for what they did. “Ministry” is a lifestyle of every real Christian. Full-time ministry is what every Christian is called to do. The early church had no on/off button. From the day you got saved you are in the ministry. Someone who gets paid for doing ministry is called a hireling in scripture.

9. To punch the clock and give God His day. Every day is God’s day. Punching the clock so as to please the pastor, your wife, or God is religion. Scripture says: “In everything you do.” Did you know that God is happy when you take some rest and go fishing? God does not give you a pass to do whatever you want with the other 6 days of the week. Every day is His day!

10. To get under the anointing. This is more baloney coming from an alleged need of the “laity” to get some from the “clergy.” This thinking teaches that the upper class “clergy” have something you need from them so you must come weekly to get it. The problem arises when you keep getting it weekly for years, but your life does not change. The problem with that is, all of Gods people are already anointed, and carrying “the anointing,” and all God’s people are clergy or the Lords portion, and all of the Gods leaders are laity too. In the Kingdom of God there are no second class citizens.

11. To get in His presence. There is not one New Testament verse tying the presence of God to a building or to a weekly gathering. Furthermore, there is not one verse in the New Testament about believers going in search for His presence, or having to call His presence down. The Lord is not in a cloud anymore or even in a chair next to us. He is a forever with us and IN us.

12. To hear or experience Christ as we each share in the meeting. Scripture tells us that wherever two or three are gathered in His Name (nature) there He is. It doesn’t say it has to be an official meeting or that everyone in the meeting must share to hear Christ. If that is true, how many believers represent a quorum for God to be heard?

13. To go up to Zion together with rest of the Church worldwide. This is a Jewish practice taken from the Old Testament typology. Sorry, but since Jesus shed His blood I can get in His presence anytime and anyplace. I am not working my way in a service to go up to Zion. I am Zion, the New Jerusalem of God because He lives and dwells in me in, with, and among the body of Christ.

14. To train you to be missional. This is the newest one I have heard. Talk about getting the cart before the horse! Anything that is genuinely missional arises from Christ’s compassion for a hurting world. The more we love like Christ, the more we are missional like Christ. The fuel of everything missional is love not six elements of this or that, and “apostolic genius.” God help us! If we are still obsessing with programs and recipes we are not yet free!

All of the above are

Wrong Reasons for Going to Church

Finally, it would be improper to close this article without mentioning the only verifiable reason in the New Testament for new creation people to gather as the people of God. This one reason is by far the greatest missing element of the 21st century church. You would think it is some deep profound mystery for the mature, but it’s not. It’s the only reason that can grow His Church because it’s the only one scripture says the lost are waiting to see.

I will say it and most will say they already have it. The problem is, the standard of what this word means to new creation people has been dumbed down to simply saying “God bless you” to people you will have to wait another week again to maybe see.

The bar was set in the New Testament, but we have no clue to the meaning of all this or how to implement this in the 21st century.

Acts 2:44-45  Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common, 45 and sold their possessions and goods, and divided them among all, as anyone had need. NKJV

Acts 4:32-33 Now the multitude of those who believed were of one heart and one soul; neither did anyone say that any of the things he possessed was his own, but they had all things in common. NKJV

The above will never work in our world until we love each other the way they did. The early saints were driven to gather by the love and compassion they had for each other. Paul never praises the congregations in the New Testament for their soul winning efforts, the size of their congregations or the amount of money they handled in their budgets. Paul never speaks of a brand name, a denomination or a particular leaders following. His greatest praise is how the NAME of Christ is being made known by the love they are manifesting first for each other and then for the lost. You want a name to describe the gathering of the saints? Return to the foundation of a “love feast” instead of Catholic services and Protestant meetings.

I agree with John–how can we say we have been with God if we don’t have a heart for the brethren?  You claim you spend hours in worship and prayer but you don’t have a heart to help your own family? What God do you pray to?

Still bragging about your Easter service? What if your measurement and values don’t register with God?

May the Lord have mercy on His church and may He have patience with you as He has had with me. I am not praying for revival of a dead human system but I am praying for His people to be holy and wholly unsatisfied until they find HIM and become HIM to a lost and dying world by their love..

Jose Bosque


To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you can download the Framework and Notes here, free of charge.

Please also share our blog to allow others to review and contribute – we need everyone, not just leaders, to play their part in building a church that others want to come to.


Jose Bosque is Editor in Chief and founder of Viral Cast Media which oversees GodsLeader, JaxChristian now ViralChrist and 15 other websites. He has ministered in Jacksonville since 1987 and served the city since 1992 as a citywide servant leader. Jose is considered a resource and a spiritual father to many leaders in the city and in the 54 nations where the Lord has sent him to serve. Originally born in Cuba, Jose has resided in Jacksonville since 1966.


Copyright 2015 Jose L. Bosque. Permission is granted to copy, forward, or distribute this article for non-commercial use only, as long as this copyright byline, in totality, is maintained in all duplications, copies, and link references. For reprint permission for any commercial use, in any form of media, please contact us.

 

Structuring Churches to Come to One Mind, Will and Purpose (Part 3)

By Peter Thompson B.Theo Grad Dip Theology

church-people-clip-art-church-cartoonIn Parts 1 and 2, we discerned some similarities in four different contexts where a church community was either exhorted to fully agree with one another by coming to one mind together, or actually achieved such a unanimous agreement.

Certain things, I believe, begin to emerge from these accounts:

  • Coming to one mind, will and purpose in church community life is not an option, but is absolutely necessary if the Gospel is to continue to have its full, ongoing power and effect in the world;
  • Because God works within the Christian community to make His will obvious to them by the Spirit, and to effect obedience to that will, arriving at one mind together is a supernatural affair where God partners with His people to direct and guide them for His own good pleasure;
  • Church leadership structures do not make decisions for and on behalf of their congregation, and then impose those decisions upon them, because the only way for each church community to come to one mind is by God Himself (Father, Son and Spirit) making His mind, will and purpose blatantly obvious to everyone present at church assemblies; and
  • Contemporary churches need to urgently reconsider changing the function of their leaders from hierarchical authority figures to servants who, as those who belong to the church and not vice versa, facilitate the presence of the risen Lord Jesus Christ in order for the mind, will and purpose of God to be clearly made known (compare Colossians 1:24-29).

Hindrance of  Making the Bible an Idol

There are two theological issues, critical to this discussion, which I believe have tended to blind or hinder the contemporary church from understanding the God-given means for Christian communities across the world to arrive at one mind.

First, these days, the Bible tends to become an idol, what is called bibliolatry, because the Scriptures have become the primary and only truly authoritative means of hearing God speak today. This tendency has a number of serious problems, including:

  • While most Christian leaders claim to be under the final authority of the Bible, there is still so much difference of opinion in interpreting and applying the biblical text, usually because of what each one brings to the text in trying to understand it;
  • Different theologians and scholars with opposing theological perspectives tend to set themselves up as authorities over the Bible, becoming judges of what is acceptable and what may be discarded based upon what is relevant and meaningful to their own beliefs and understanding, which is usually based in each one’s particular denominational tradition;
  • The Bible then usurps God’s place as the ultimate authority as mediated by the abiding presence of Jesus, the living Word (compare Matthew 28:18; John 1:14; 17:2-3; Colossians 2:10; 1 John 1:1-3; 2 Corinthians 3:1-6); and
  • This downgrades the role of the prophet and the 5 fold ministries are meant to be the foundation of operation.
  • Jesus is not allowed to truly speak for Himself as the living Word and therefore challenge our interpretative approaches, beliefs and understanding (compare Luke 24:19-27).

Careful studies of the use of Old Testament Scripture in the New Testament clearly demonstrate that the narrative of God’s dynamic kingdom work in the experience of church communities was understood in tandem with the narrative of the Old Testament where both interpreted the other (as we have already seen occur in Acts 15). For instance:

  • Paul himself received his Gospel by a direct revelation of Jesus Christ which he later confirmed to be the genuine Gospel through the apostles in Jerusalem (Galatians 1:11-20; 2:1-2);
  • Jesus often reinterpreted the application of the law of Moses from His own experience of God’s activity, such as healing on the Sabbath (e.g., Mark 2:22-28 noting that nowhere does the OT actually speak of the Sabbath being made for humankind, not humankind for the Sabbath);
  • Paul found God’s activity of the Holy Spirit coming upon uncircumcised Gentiles reinterpreted the law of circumcision to be a work of the Spirit rather than that of human hands (Romans 2:25-29; 4:1-12; Colossians 2:11-14; Ephesians 2:11-15; Deuteronomy 10:16; 30:6; Jeremiah 4:3-4); and
  • The implementation of Jesus’ Last Supper as the Lord’s Table reinterpreted the significance of the Passover and the Day of Atonement (e.g., Mark 14:12, 22-25; Luke 22:14-20; 1 Corinthians 5:7-8; 10:16-22; Hebrews 9:1-28; 10:1-22; 13:9-16).

The Bible as a written text through which the Spirit supposedly speaks is not the ultimate authority at all, because determining what is of the Spirit and what is not is deeply disputed today. The Bible was meant to guide the Christian community to experiencing the authority of the living Word, risen and present in their midst. Rather, the written biblical text has become a source of deep division because it is not properly coupled with what God is actively doing in the midst of His church globally today.

Hindrance of Denial and/or Lack of Genuine Practice of Charismatic Gifts

Secondly, today, the genuine charismatic giftings as articulated by Paul (e.g., 1 Corinthians 12:7-11; Romans 12:6-8), are both poorly understood and rarely practised. However, in the early church, they were common place (e.g., Acts 5:12-14; Galatians 3:1-5; 1 Corinthians 2:4-5; 1 Thessalonians 1:4-5; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-2). It is clear that these giftings were supernatural manifestations of the Holy Spirit beyond normal human capability and functioning, because:

  • prophecies and other charismatic gifts of speaking had to be weighed and tested as ad hoc speech delivered on the spur of the moment (1 Corinthians 14:29-32; 1 Thessalonians 5:19-21);
  • charismatic gifts are always an expression of God’s gracious empowerment (for the word “charisma”, translated as “gifts”, stems from the Greek word for grace, “charis”), with God or the Spirit always being the subject (1 Corinthians 12:4-7; Romans 12:3-6; compare 1 Corinthians 4:6-7; 2 Corinthians 4:7; Ephesians 6:10); and
  • signs and wonders as demonstrations of God’s supernatural power were always associated with the charismatic gifts and the activity of Christian ministers (e.g., Hebrews 2:3-4; Romans 15:18-19; 1 Corinthians 4:20; Acts 2:43; 6:8; 7:36; 14:3; 2 Corinthians 12:12; Ephesians 3:7; compare Acts 2:22; 10:38).

I have personally experienced or witnessed the genuine manifestation of these Spirit-gifted expressions of God’s supernatural intervention in human affairs, including many undeniable physical miracles and supernatural healings. Arguments that such supernatural encounters either can’t happen today, or only happen when God has a unique, major, world-changing purpose to effect, are completely rendered void by my own fairly extensive experiences, let alone the experiences of so many others today, and so many more throughout church history. None of the supernatural encounters I experienced were associated with ground-breaking major moves of God, but occurred amongst ordinary little church communities in provincial areas of Queensland or around the outskirts of Brisbane.

Simple Proposal for How Oneness of Mind, Will and Purpose Was Achieved by the Early Church

With this in mind, I propose that the early New Testament church achieved, or sought to achieve, oneness of mind and judgment together through the mind, will and purpose of the Father, Son and Spirit (i.e. the “mind of Christ”) being manifestly obvious to all present in assembly through the combination of:

  • God’s ongoing gracious activity both in the midst of His church locally and world-wide, and out in the world, as properly confirmed to be genuine by Scripture; and
  • the operation of the genuinely charismatic gifts of speech expressed through the whole congregation.

This is, in my understanding, the only clear way to comprehend the biblical injunctions to arrive at the same mind and judgment.

Further Biblical Support

This proposal can be further supported as follows:Christianity

  • Jesus is Emmanuel, “God is with Us” (Matthew 1:23; compare Isaiah 7:14; 8:8-10);
  • Apart from Christ, from dwelling in Him and utterly depending upon Him, the church can do nothing (John 15:5; compare Colossians 2:19; Ephesians 4:15-16);
  • All true believers in God’s sheep-fold know and hear the shepherd’s voice (John 10:1-5, 14-16; compare John 18:37);
  • Jesus is personally present in power in the midst of the Christian assembly (1 Corinthians 5:3-5; compare Matthew 18:19-20 noting how “agreement” forms the immediate context; John 12:26); and
  • Jesus has been held to be personally present in the celebration of the Lord’s Table or Eucharist throughout church history.

Need for Urgent Change

It never ceases to amaze me why most contemporary Christian churches openly acknowledge the resurrection of Christ as a reality, but dismiss His ability to be personally present in the midst of Christian gatherings (and especially around the Eucharist) to express the one mind, will and purpose of the Father, Son and Spirit together through the supernatural manifestations of the Spirit in the community-wide expression of the charismatic gifts.

I have yet to find a church in Australia today that even remotely comes close to regularly experiencing the manifest presence of the risen Christ in their midst where Jesus Himself openly speaks and directs the congregation during their meetings and gatherings through the congregation-wide charismatic gifts. If the church is ever to come to one mind and judgment, this has to change, and rapidly so.


To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you will need to see the notes which are available by contacting us.

Please also share our blog to allow others to review and contribute – we need everyone, not just leaders, to play their part in building a church that others want to come to.


Peter “Thommo” Thompson was born in 1958 in the bulldust of south-western Queensland in the region around the township of Mitchell.  He was converted outside of the church through a supernatural encounter with the living God in Mackay, North Queensland, in February 1979, and embarked upon a long and arduous journey of God dealing with the figurative bulldust in his life.  In 2012, he completed a Bachelor of Ministry & Theology double degree, and in 2013, a Post-Graduate Diploma in Theology, all at Tabor Adelaide.  He currently lives with his two adult daughters in Ipswich, Queensland, and is writing a series of academic novels with the intent of hopefully helping to facilitate a church unifying movement through an unbranded form of Christianity in Australia.


Copyright 2015 Peter Thompson. Permission is granted to copy, forward, or distribute this article for non-commercial use only, as long as this copyright byline, in totality, is maintained in all duplications, copies, and link references. For reprint permission for any commercial use, in any form of media, please contact us.

10 Surprising Signs Your Church Is Ready To Reach Non-Christians

By Frank Powell

Why does the church exist? If I asked this question to a thousand Christians, the answer would be fairly consistent across the board. The church exists to reach the lost and make disciples (or some variation of this phrase). The problem is most churches aren’t reaching the lost and making disciples.

Maybe this is because churches don’t understand the culture that must be present to reach the lost. Yes, the Spirit is essential and can work through any church culture. But some cultures are more favorable to the spread of the mission than others. There is a reason some churches are externally focused and other are not. There is a reason some churches are impacting the culture and awakening people to Christ and others are not.

What does a church culture prepared to reach the lost and unchurched look like? I want to introduce 10 signs your church is ready to reach the lost and engage the unchurched.

As you read, you will be surprised. These signs don’t appear to be representative of healthy church cultures. But healthy cultures (at least in terms of stability) rarely focus on the lost. They rarely engage the unchurched. These might be ideas preached from the pulpit, but they are not actions in the lives of members. So, understand, sometimes what appears to be instability and failure is actually growth and forward progress.

Here are 10 signs your church is ready to reach the lost.

1.) Longtime church members are upset. 

Carey Neiuwhof talks about this here. When the unchurched or lost begin showing up at your church, some long time church members will become upset. People who don’t know Jesus don’t understand the “code.” They don’t speak the church language. And these church people only like those who speak their language.

But this is not true of everyone. Some Christians will see the shift and be revitalized. They understand the goal is not to be comfortable and safe. And this will ignite their heart towards the mission. So, if your church has some Christians uneasy and upset, don’t feel bad. This is a natural part of a culture focused on reaching the lost. Embrace it.

2.) Members celebrate when people are sent into the world.

‘Success in the church shouldn’t center around how many are gathered, but how many are sent.’

The God we serve is a God who sends people into the world, not gathers them into a huddle. Likewise, success in the church shouldn’t center around how many are gathered, but how many are sent. Insider-focused churches try to plug people into the life of the church. Churches focused on the lost try to plug the church in the life of the world.

Recently, my wife informed me of a local ministry in Jackson, TN focused on ministering to women at a strip club. These are ordinary women. No special training. Just women who decided volunteering at church wasn’t the extent of their ministry for God. So, Friday nights are not a time to rest and wind down from a long week. They are a time devoted to prayer and showing up at a strip club to minister to women.

They realize being sent is the call of God. They understand being sent isn’t a future event or an overseas calling. Being sent is a lifestyle. A way of living. The way of Jesus.

3.)  Traditional stances on moral and cultural issues are re-examined. 

Recently, I talked with a man who used to be in ministry. This man focused his ministry on reaching the lost and unchurched. For a season, everyone was enthusiastic about this shift. But eventually excitement relinquished and reality set in. Leaders began asking questions. People were coming to Jesus who lived together before marriage, had broken marriages, and everything in between. This forced everyone to re-examine issues like homosexuality, divorce and remarriage, etc.

You see, when your church focuses on reaching the lost, the issues most Christians talk about abstractly become concrete. Sexual immorality has a name. Tom. Jill. Billy. These are real people with real struggles. They aren’t ideas. And this creates tension. Healthy tension, but tension nonetheless.

If your church isn’t re-examining traditional stances on certain issues, you probably aren’t reaching people who struggle with these issues.

4.) Church attendance is no longer the primary metric for church growth. 

If your church is focused on reaching the lost, weekly attendance will decrease. Some regular church members will leave, and new converts won’t initially attend church regularly.

But this is where using attendance as a primary metric is dangerous. If your church is reaching the lost, attendance might decrease, but engagement will increase. And engagement drives church growth and effectiveness, not church attendance. The issue with most insider-focused churches is engagement can be a very difficult thing to measure. And these churches must have a concrete metric to gauge the condition of the church.

Churches focused on reaching the lost value church attendance, but they never allow a packed room to be more important than engaged people. Because decreased attendance isn’t always a bad thing. It might be a sign your church is ready to reach the lost.

5.) Leaders admit struggles and sins. 

One thing the lost and unchurched sniff out immediately is…hypocrisy. And a hypocrite isn’t someone who sins or struggles. A hypocrite is someone who knows sin exists but either covers it up or is blind to it. The lost won’t hang around in churches where everyone has it all together. I don’t blame them.

Churches focused on the lost have members keenly aware of their sin. These churches will be transparent about sin. This starts with the leaders, but it doesn’t stop with them. A culture of authenticity and openness is present in these churches. This might come off as a sign of weakness to some insider-focused churches, but it is really a sign of strength. Because it is in weakness God is glorified. It is through sin the gospel’s power comes to life.

Don’t expect those who don’t know Jesus (or those who understand the infinitely wide gap between man’s sinfulness and God’s perfection) to be at a church where leaders aren’t confessing and repenting.

6.) Programs and events are scrapped. 

Churches focused on the lost and unchurched always filter programs and events through the mission and vision. These churches realize neat, tidy programs and events often hinder spiritual growth and development. And they aren’t willing to keep a program on life support at the expense of losing people.

‘Externally-focused churches won’t hold on to a program at the expense of losing people.’

Programs and events are inherently wrong, but too many churches place more value on programs than people. They would rather scrap people than scrap programs. This is a problem. Churches who value reaching the lost are flexible. They understand the church isn’t about programs and events. It is about people.

7.) Being a family isn’t a core value. 

The church is a family. But the traditional American family isn’t a great metaphor for the type of family the church should be. The traditional American family looks the same. They do everything together. They enjoy the same hobbies and activities. And they are typically exclusive.

The church, however, should not look the same. People from all walks of life should be present. People from all backgrounds should be present. It should never be exclusive. For churches focused on the lost, the mission will be more important than meeting together and placing everyone in nice, neat groups.

8.) Everyone is ok with not being ok. 

Insider-focused churches would rather keep their Christian bubble from bursting than allow someone who curses, smokes, or makes obscene gestures to know Jesus. “Holy huddle” churches might keep their children from hearing “bad words,” but they will never experience the power of the gospel. They will never see God altering trajectories and transforming lives.

Churches focused on the lost understand faith in Christ doesn’t equal instant behavioral transformation. They take people where they are and embrace the journey, bad words and all. They celebrate transformation, but they don’t expect every person to transform instantly (or equally).

9.)  Pharisees are leaving. 

It is impossible to make everyone happy and pursue the mission concurrently. When making disciples is the priority, Pharisees get angry. Eventually, these Pharisees will be fed up with the direction of the church. And they will leave.

Churches focused on the lost value reaching people more than keeping people. They understand you can’t have both. This is why a compelling vision is essential. When vision is present, decisions and actions are filtered through this vision. And angry Pharisees don’t fit in a vision focused on the lost.

‘Churches must decide whether they want to keep people or reach people.’

10.) No one is talking about “church issues.” 

‘Churches focused on reaching the lost don’t have time for meaningless conversations.’

Churches focused on reaching the lost and fulfilling the mission don’t have time for meaningless conversations. They don’t gather to answer questions no one is asking. They don’t use the pulpit as a platform to discuss political or denominational issues. These churches are focused on Jesus and the gospel. They understand, as Paul says in 1 Corinthians 15, the gospel is of first importance. Everything outside the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ is secondary.

Meanwhile, insider-focused churches are constantly gathering to discuss why their denomination is the best, why their interpretation of a particular Scripture is right, and why in the world the Seahawks passed the ball in the Super Bowl when they were six inches from the goal line?

Alright, maybe I have asked this question to a few people since it happened. But, really? A pass play?

I know there are more signs a church is ready to reach the lost. Let’s keep the conversation going.

I love you all. To God be the glory forever. Amen!


To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you will need to see the notes which are available by contacting us.

Please also share our blog to allow others to review and contribute – we need everyone, not just leaders, to play their part in building a church that others want to come to.


Frank serves as a college/young adult pastor in Jackson, TN. He loves sports, outdoors, and playing with his two boys. You can find him at http://frankpowell.me/


Copyright 2015 Frank Powell. Permission is granted to copy, forward, or distribute this article for non-commercial use only, as long as this copyright byline, in totality, is maintained in all duplications, copies, and link references. For reprint permission for any commercial use, in any form of media, please contact us.

 

 

 

Worship of the Bible is Idolatry

By Dr. Stephen R. Crosby

There was a Body before there was a Christian “Bible.” This is a threatening fact for many. It is none-the-less, an indisputable historical fact. The implications can, and have been, argued for centuries, but the fact cannot be.

The body of Christ is the result of Jesus’s life, death, resurrection, Spirit-outpouring, and Spirit-indwelling: the new creation. The Bible is the product of the Holy Spirit working in and through the body/church. In a historical sense, not a metaphysical one (the Church is eternal, as is the Logos), there was a community before there were writings. The writings came out of the experience of the community and the need to objectively capture the transmission of the apostolic proclamation of Christ, for future generations.

I am thankful for my heritage. By the grace of God, I have been devoted to Jesus as revealed in the scriptures for 40 years. To the best of my ability, I have given my life to the disciplined study, honest exegesis, and honorable application of the scriptures. I am not anti-scripture. I am anti-ignorance and anti-nonsense.

However, knowledge and love must always go together. Love must be informed by accurate knowledge, and knowledge must be infused by, and expressed in, love. We must honestly admit that the Protestant Evangelical passion for the scripture (which I share) is not without some inherent difficulties and risks.

Respect for, or Worship of The Bible?

While I am thankful for the “plus side” of what came out of the Reformation, there are some downsides as well. Bypassing for now the egregious misbehavior associated with some of the personalities involved in the Reformation, there is yet another downside consequence which is more contemporaneous. It’s the risk of bibliolatry: the worship of the Bible. Evangelicals and Fundamentalists would vehemently deny that this is an issue in their spheres, but it is a very present and serious issue.

For the majority of Evangelical Christianity the essence of our faith is presented as a set of propositional truths about Jesus, to which the unbelieving world must agree, or “go to hell.” “The Bible says” a lot of things. Understanding and applying what it says is always the issue. As Dr. Gordon Fee has succinctly said: “It’s all hermeneutics.”

I suggest, as did A. W. Tozer, that the specter of bibliolatry is always uncomfortably close at hand.  Tozer called it the “tyranny of the scribe” and “textualism from which the human mind revolts.” Tozer is not alone. Paul Tournier described the real essence of Christianity as: “. . . the building of a new civilization in which the spirit of Christ will be in the inner source of personal, family, social, and individual conduct.”

Peter Leithart says it like this:

Christian community . . . is not an extra religious layer on social life. The church is not a club for religious people. The church is a new way of living together before God, a new way of being human together. What Jesus and the apostles proclaimed was not a new ideology or a new religion, in our attenuated modern sense. What they proclaimed was salvation, and that meant a new human world, a new social and political reality .  .  . Conversion thus means turning from one way of life, one culture to another . . . it is the beginning of a re-socialization . . . In the New Testament we do not find an essentially private gospel being applied to the public sphere, as if  . . . it were a second story built on a private ground floor. The gospel IS the announcement of the Father’s formation, through His Son and the Spirit, of a new city—the city of God.

Paul’s gospel had an empirical test built into it; if no one was transformed, then the message that announced the transformation could not possibly be true. The first and chief defense of the gospel, the first letter of commendation not only for Paul but for Jesus, is not an argument, but the life of the Church, conformed to Christ by the Spirit in service and suffering. A community of sinners whose corporate life resembles Christ –that is the Church’s first apologetic. The very existence of such a “city” is our main argument.

Truth Has a Body

The scriptures declare that the world is not waiting to be persuaded from the Bible. The world does not care about our “Bible” and our opinions about it. The scriptures tell us that the unbelieving world has a right to “taste” of us, to savor us, to see if the aroma of Christ is present or not. The world is waiting to see a quality of life manifested on earth. The scriptures exist to reveal Jesus Christ for who He is, and to serve these ends. If we master the content of the scripture and have no savor or aroma of Christ, we are like a man holding a legitimate ticket, but who has missed his boat. It doesn’t matter how factual your ticket is, how everything on that ticket is true, how well you can explain the ticket, and defend its veracity. It exists to serve a purpose and you have missed it.

Truth has always had a Body. All  Christian truth is incarnational (embodied). The correct apprehension of biblical facts is not the same as possessing the life of Christ. It’s possible to flawlessly explain Paul’s theology and possess none of his life. The church, the ekklesia, is supposed to be the pillar and ground of all truth. That does not mean it is to a library for the accumulation of scriptural knowledge. It means that in the Body, Jesus is to be seen.

Coffee and Charcoal

Without beans you cannot have a cup of coffee, but with just beans you still don’t have coffee! You have the potential for coffee. Disciplined study of scripture is like a cup of beans: necessary, but not the end of the matter.  Scripture study is like charcoal. Without it, you won’t have a barbecue. But just having charcoal is not enough for a barbecue. The potential for heat and light that is in the charcoal must be ignited. It is our being knit together in love that turns beans to coffee and charcoal to heat and light.

Paul makes it clear in Colossians 2:2-3 that the unfolding of all the mysteries of God, the deep insights into His Person, plan and purpose, is not just a result of receiving the “preached word,” but is directly linked to our joining together in love (emphasis mine):

That their hearts might be knit together in love and UNTO all riches of the full assurance ofunderstanding, to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ, in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

Bible study can be intellectually intoxicating and lacking social context. Living well together in Christ is crucifying. There is more to our faith than the accumulation of teachings and a pursuit of “deeper understanding,” erroneously often called “revelations.”  I am not interested in novelty for novelty’s sake. I am not introduced in esoteric speculations from the scripture. I would like to live well in the sure things from scripture that I already understand. Mark Twain once said that he was not so much bothered by what he did not understand about the Bible, but by what he did understand! Me too.

Regardless of how right we might be on a point of doctrine, or how “anointed” the meeting is, or how “cutting edge” our insight is, we are worthless to God and humanity if these things do not ultimately lead to transformation of our lives before God and humanity. There is a love that surpasses knowledge. There is a power that surpasses what the natural can produce. There is a service that transcends human sympathy. These things are neither difficult nor complicated. They do not require argumentative (and often endless)  explanation. They require expression. For the world:

We are the message.

We are the argument.

We are the apologetic.

Jesus said: By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another. This is to be the outcome of our commitment to scripture. We are the One Loaf the unbelieving world is permitted to “bite into” to taste and see if God is good . . . or not. [xvi]  If our commitment to scripture does not result in an appropriate taste, our ship has sailed without us.

 


[i] Not the least of which is: “Who reforms the Reformers?” Every group thinks they have the last word from God – a fundamentally intoxicating proposition.

[ii] Rom. 8:19.

[iii] Ps. 34:8.

[iv] Matt. 5:13.

[v] 2 Cor. 2:16.

[vi] Rom. 8:19, 2 Cor. 4:10-11.

[vii] John 5:39-42, John 14:6, 1 John 1: 1-3.

[viii] A. W. Tozer, Keys to the Deeper Life, 1957.

[ix] Paul Tournier. The Healing of Persons. New York: Harper and Row, 1965, 42.

[x] Peter Leithart. Against Christianity. Moscow: Canon Press, 2003, 16.

[xi] Ibid., 99-100.

[xii] In the sense of utility for kingdom purpose, not in the sense of His affections.

[xiii] Eph. 3:19.

[xiv] Heb. 6:5.

[xv] Heb. 10:24.

[xvi] Matt 5:16; James 2:18, 20, 26. It is my understanding that the justifying works of James are not in conflict with Paul. The works James refers to are the works before humanity, not God. These works “justify” us in the eyes and ears of the world, and earn us a right to be listened to (e.g. Matt 5:16). Our behaviors will always speak more loudly than our philosophies:  “See how they love one another.”

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To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you will need to see the notes which are available by contacting us.

Please also share our blog to allow others to review and contribute – we need everyone, not just leaders, to play their part in building a church that others want to come to.

————————————————————————————————————————————–

Copyright 2015,  Dr. Stephen R. Crosby, www.stevecrosby.org Permission is granted to copy, forward, or distribute this article for non-commercial use only, as long as this copyright byline, in totality, is maintained in all duplications, copies, and link references.  For reprint permission for any commercial use, in any form of media, please contact stephrcrosby@gmail.com.

Structuring Churches to Come to One Mind, Will and Purpose (Part 2)

By Peter Thompson B.Theo Grad Dip Theology

In Part 1, we discerned some similarities in the Corinthian and Philippian contexts for Paul’s exhortation that those churches fully agree with one another by coming to one mind together.

With the Corinthian church, Paul exhorted them to be united in the same mind and judgment:

  •  on the basis that all the power and wisdom they need for their life in Christ together comes out of their intimate, corporate relationship with the risen Lord Jesus by means of the activity and empowerment of the Spirit;
  • under the motivation of genuine, self-giving love which builds up the whole church community;
  • because they have the mind of Christ together by means of the Spirit;
  • so that the Gospel is not hindered.

With the Philippian church, Paul exhorted them to set their minds and whole beings on the same thing together:

  • on the basis of the Father’s love, the comfort of Christ, and the sharing in the Spirit together in the face of persecution and suffering;
  • under the motivation that their self-giving love for each other needs to abound even more and more;
  • because God works in them (as a community) to effect obedience to His will, as they have full knowledge and moral insight by the Spirit to discern and approve the things which really matter;
  • so that they could effectively contend for the Gospel together as one person, holding out the word of life as true children of God.

Conclusions from Paul’s Two Calls for Oneness of Mind

From this, we can conclude that Paul’s call for community-wide unity had the following characteristics:

  • church leaders had indulged in various forms of self-seeking, ambition and domination, resulting in disputes, grumbling and community-destroying behaviours among the church community;
  • the expression of self-giving love within the Christian community was only truly complete and operative when they arrived at this oneness of mind and judgment;
  • community-building characteristics like humility, self-emptying, and seeking the interests of others were to be sought through the Spirit’s transforming work within them, and all community-destroying attitudes and behaviours were not to be tolerated;
  • church leaders were not to dominate decisions, but rather, as Christ’s slaves/servants, they were to facilitate the activity of the Father, Son and Spirit in order for the community to come to one mind over all decisions which really mattered; and
  • such oneness of mind in the wisdom of Christ as effected by the activity of the Spirit constitutes a manner of life by the church community which is worthy of the Gospel and doesn’t hinder its continuing effect in the world, and equates to the church community’s experienced, not just objective or theoretical, life in Christ which is sourced in the Father.

What Paul is calling for is not just arriving at one mind, but arriving at one will and purpose as well, that of God’s will and purpose expressed within the community, for they were to arrive at the same mind and the same judgment together as one, whole person. Obedience to God’s will is effected by God’s own efforts within the community, and this is how churches are to work out their salvation in real life — it is a true partnership between all the divine and human persons involved in the community and its decisions.

This is particularly important considering the church community is to mirror the perfect relational unity of mind, will and purpose which encompasses our three-in-one God.

The Common Problem Experienced by the Churches across Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia & Bithynia

The Apostle Peter wrote to the various Jewish churches across the Roman provinces of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia (i.e. modern-day Turkey). The key issue was persecution against these churches by the neighbouring pagans and the suffering that persecution caused them (1 Peter 1:6-7; 3:14, 17; 4:1-4, 12-16, 19; 5:9-10).

In addressing this issue of suffering, Peter also exhorted them all to:

  • get rid of all malice, deceit/treachery, insincerity/pretence, envy/spite, and every type of slander (1 Peter 2:1);
  • have unity of mind, sympathy, brotherly love/fondness, compassion/tender-heartedness, and humility (1 Peter 3:8);
  • show hospitality to each other without grumbling/complaining (1 Peter 4:9);
  • live the rest of their days in the flesh for the will of God, not human desires (1 Peter 4:2);
  • above all, earnestly/constantly maintain love for one another (1 Peter 4:8);
  • serve one another as good stewards of God’s varied grace through their charismatic giftings of speech and service (1 Peter 4:10-11); and
  • be prepared to give a defence with gentleness and respect to anyone questioning them about the hope evident within their community (1 Peter 3:15-16).

Peter also exhorted the church elders to shepherd the flock of God under their care/oversight, not by domineering them or greedily seeking material gain, but by watching over it, humbly leading them through their own example (1 Peter 5:1-6).

Here we see the basic elements of how Paul dealt with divisions in the Greek/Macedonian churches now evident in Peter’s approach to handling the effects of persecution upon each church’s inner unity and functionality. It seems to me this is no mere coincidence, for Peter’s epistle (which was most likely written between Paul’s and Peter’s respective executions) was addressed to various Jewish churches within areas where Paul first initiated and pioneered contact with the Gospel. church-family-images-_4440318_orig

The Agreement Reached by the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15

Too many scholars and church leaders have looked too casually at Acts 15 and concluded that the Jerusalem meeting was just a human forum for all stake-holders to present their case after which some conciliatory process occurred, resulting in a compromise being reached between the various parties for the sake of the Gentile churches, a compromise in which the Spirit played a role. In my opinion, this interpretative approach mistakenly reads modern forms of church governance, based upon modern democratic forms of government, back into the text.

Rather, the actual elements of the text are that:

  • a strong and significant dispute, which is the significance of the Greek word used in verses 2 and 7, arose over the need for Gentile converts to be circumcised;
  • no specific mention is made of any contribution to the meeting made by those who upheld the need to circumcise Gentile converts other than the general statement in verse 7;
  • silence fell over the whole assembly in verse 12 after Peter spoke despite the strong disputes occurring in verse 7 immediately prior to Peter speaking;
  • after Paul and Barnabas related what God had done among the Gentiles (verse 12), James stood up to cite a text from Amos which confirmed that the Old Testament prophets agreed with what God had been doing in their midst to include the Gentiles within the church (verses 13-18);
  • the Holy Spirit and the whole assembly “resolved” the issue (verses 25, 28) by reaching “a unanimous decision” (verse 25) — the significance of the Greek words translated “seemed good to” and “to one accord” [ESV] — which signified a complete harmony, peace, wholeness and agreement had been reached; and
  • the whole assembled church in Jerusalem, not just the church leaders, was the vehicle in which the Spirit spoke (verses 4, 12, 22), noting that the apparent contradiction in verse 6 where only the apostles and elders came together to see about the matter probably only indicates, in the light of verse 12, that the leaders met first before calling the whole church to assemble.

Basis for the Assembly Reaching a Unanimous Agreement

A number of scholars are now observing that something more than a compromise or leader-imposed majority decision actually occurred in this assembly, because:

  • there was no actual discussion or debate recorded by Luke which resolved the issue;
  • James did not clinch the argument from Amos in verses 16-18, but simply pointed out in verse 15 how the words of the prophets agreed with what Peter, Paul and Barnabas had already observed God doing;
  • what actually clinched the argument was the reciting of the accounts of what God had already done to include the Gentiles within the wider church in verses 7-12;
  • the Holy Spirit is given prominence in verse 28 for the unanimous decision achieved by being mentioned first;
  • what James passed judgment upon in verse 19 as the chairperson of that meeting/assembly was a conclusion that verse 25 clearly states in retrospect was a unanimous agreement arrived at by the whole assembly;
  • no Greek words for commanding were used in conveying the unanimous decision — in fact, the only imperatives in the whole chapter occur in verse 13, “listen to me”, and in verse 29, “farewell”; and
  • when God clearly speaks in a way in which His declared will and purpose is obvious to everyone present, a unanimous agreement would naturally result.

No form of compromise or system of voting could achieve a unanimous agreement, because the whole nature of compromise or a majority-based decision always leaves some people dissatisfied with the decision.

How this unanimous agreement in Acts 15 could be achieved in light of the three passages in Paul and Peter calling for oneness of mind will be explored in Part 3.


To review the studies included in the Framework and find out why we have concluded these things you will need to see the notes which are available by contacting us.

Please also share our blog to allow others to review and contribute – we need everyone, not just leaders, to play their part in building a church that others want to come to.


Peter “Thommo” Thompson was born in 1958 in the bulldust of south-western Queensland in the region around the township of Mitchell.  He was converted outside of the church through a supernatural encounter with the living God in Mackay, North Queensland, in February 1979, and embarked upon a long and arduous journey of God dealing with the figurative bulldust in his life.  In 2012, he completed a Bachelor of Ministry & Theology double degree, and in 2013, a Post-Graduate Diploma in Theology, all at Tabor Adelaide.  He currently lives with his two adult daughters in Ipswich, Queensland, and is writing a series of academic novels with the intent of hopefully helping to facilitate a church unifying movement through an unbranded form of Christianity in Australia.


Copyright 2015 Peter Thompson. Permission is granted to copy, forward, or distribute this article for non-commercial use only, as long as this copyright byline, in totality, is maintained in all duplications, copies, and link references. For reprint permission for any commercial use, in any form of media, please contact us.